DETAIL KOLEKSI

Pengolahan Limbah Cpo Parit Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Menjadi Bahan Bakar

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Oleh : Ade Putra

Info Katalog

Nomor Panggil : TA,TL.715

Penerbit : FALTL - Usakti

Kota Terbit : Jakarta

Tahun Terbit : 2010

Pembimbing 1 : Edison Effendi

Subyek : Fuel cycle;Energy sources;Synthetic fuel

Kata Kunci : Cpo parit waste, Esterification, Transestrification, Fuel


File Repositori
No. Nama File Ukuran (KB) Status
1. 2010_TA_TL_08205001_7.pdf 756.23
2. 2010_TA_TL_08205001_6.pdf 417.3
3. 2010_TA_TL_08205001_5.pdf 476.35
4. 2010_TA_TL_08205001_4.pdf 446.56
5. 2010_TA_TL_08205001_3.pdf 576.72
6. 2010_TA_TL_08205001_2.pdf 410.85
7. 2010_TA_TL_08205001_1.pdf 508.95

P Pesatnya pertumbuhan industri pengolahan kelapa sawit di Indonesia membawa dampak terhadap lingkungan, karena dalam proses pengolahan Minyak Sawit Mentah (MSM) dari Tandan Buah Segar (TBS) dihasilkan produk sampingan berupa limbah cair yang volumenya relatif lebih besar, yakni mencapai 5 ton limbah cair untuk setiap ton MSM yang diperoleh. Dengan laju pertambahan areal kelapa sawit 9.5 persen pertahun, areal kelapa sawit di Indonesia pada tahun 2000 akan melampaui 2.5 juta hektar dengan Pabrik Pengolahan Kelapa Sawit (PKS) lebih dari 190 unit. Pada kondisi tersebut, limbah cair yang dihasilkan sekitar 114 ribu m3 per hari dengan kandungan BOD 25000 mg/l setara dengan beban pencemaran lingkungan 2450 ton/hari. Limbah ini merupakan air yang bercampur dengan minyak sawit yang ditampung di kolam-kolam limbah. Kandungan asam lemak bebas (Free Fatty Acid) limbah CPO Parit pabrik kelapa sawit di atas 5%. Volume limbah cair pengolahan kelapa sawit sekitar 2 kali lipat dari kapasitas produksi pabrik kelapa sawit dan mengandung minyak sawit sebesar 0.5%. Limbah CPO Parit pabrik kelapa sawit bersifat nontoksik, karena dalam proses ekstraksi minyak sawit tidak menggunakan bahan kimia. Dari hasil test pendahuluan terhadap limbah CPO Parit pabrik kelapa sawit diperoleh nilai asam lemak bebas (free fatty acid) yang terkandung diatas 5%. Oleh karena itu dilakukan proses esterifikasi dua tahap, yaitu esterifikasi asam dan esterifikasi basa (transesterifikasi). Titik nyala (flash point) terendah pada tahap esterifikasi adalah 51.10C kondisi metanol 150 ml (3.71 mol) dan 470C kondisi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol). Konversi % Fatty Acid Metil Ester (FAME) pada tahap esterifikasi tertinggi terjadi pada variasi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) 93.93%, variasi waktu 120 menit pengadukan kondisi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) 93.92%, variasi temperatur 700C kondisi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) 94.14% dan variasi konsentrasi asam 1% kondisi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) 94.36%. Konversi (FAME) pada tahap transesterifikasi tertinggi pada variasi waktu 60 menit pengadukan kondisi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) 97.95%, variasi termperatur kondisi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) 97.33% dan variasi konsentrasi basa 1% kondisi metanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) 97.13%. Limbah CPO Parit pabrik kelapa sawit dapat diolah menjadi bahan bakar dengan melakukan proses esterifikasi dua tahap.

T The rapid growth of palm oil processing industry in Indonesia had an impact on the environment because the processing of crude palm oil (CPO) of fresh fruit bunches (FFB), a byproduct produced in the form of liquid waste volume is relatively larger, which reached 5 tons of liquid waste for each tons crude palm oil obtained. With the rate of increase in oil palm acreage by 9.5 percent per year, an estimated area of oil palm in Indonesia in 2000 will exceed 2.5 million hectares with oil palm processing factory of more than 190 units. In these conditions, liquid wastes generated around 114 thousand m3 per day with a BOD content of 25000 mg/l of environmental pollution load equivalent to 2450 tons/day. This waste water is mixed with palm oil is accommodated in the waste ponds. Free fatty acid content of CPO Parit waste, palm oil mills in the top 5%. The volume of palm oil processing wastewater approximately two times the capacity of the factory production of palm oil and palm oil contain 0.5%. Palm oil mill wastewater nontoxic, because the palm oil extraction process does not use chemicals. From the results of preliminary tests on the CPO Parit waste palm oil mill obtained values of free fatty acids, which contained more than 5%. Therefore, the esterification process is carried out in two stages, namely the esterification of acid and base esterification (transesterification). Flash point and lowest stage of esterification was 51.10C conditions methanol 150 ml (3.71 mol) and 470C 200 ml of methanol conditions (4.95 mol). Conversion % Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) at the highest esterification phase variation occurs in methanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) was 93.93%, variation of conditions of agitation time 120 min 200 ml of methanol (4.95 mol) was 93.92%, variations in temperature conditions of 700C 200 ml methanol (4.95 mol) was 94.14% and 1% acid concentration conditions of methanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) was 94.36%. Conversion (FAME) at the highest transesterification at 60 minutes of mixing time variation of the conditions of methanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) was 97.95%, variation of conditions termperatur methanol 200 ml (4.95 mol) was 97.33% and 1% concentration of alkaline methanol conditions of 200 ml (4.95 mol ) 97.13%. CPO Parit waste, palm oil mills can be processed into fuel by two-stage esterification process.

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