DETAIL KOLEKSI

Analisa konsentrasi gas buang hidrokarbon (HC) dan sulfur dioksida (SO2) dari kendaraan bermotor terhadap lingkungan di delapan ruas jalan Kota Bandung


Oleh : Albert Reinaldo

Info Katalog

Penerbit : FALTL - Usakti

Kota Terbit : Jakarta

Tahun Terbit : 2002

Pembimbing 1 : E. Budirahardjo

Pembimbing 2 : G. Gunawan

Subyek : Air pollution

Kata Kunci : HC, SO2, motor vehicle exhaust, perhitungan Gauss


File Repositori
No. Nama File Ukuran (KB) Status
1. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Halaman-Judul.pdf 2001.72
2. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Bab-1.pdf 837.16
3. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Bab-2.pdf 3559.71
4. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Bab-3.pdf 1893.66
5. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Bab-4.pdf 2585.69
6. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Bab-5.pdf 1349.27
7. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Bab-6.pdf 834.99
8. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Daftar-Pustaka.pdf 724.49
9. 2002_TA_STL_08297004_Lampiran.pdf 10024.53

K Komposisi dan konsentrasi zat yang terdapat di dalam udara sangat ditentukan oleh zat yang diemisikan oleh sumbemya. Aktivitas kendaraan bermotor merupakan unsur utama terjadinya pencemaran udara. Proses pembakaran kendaraan bermotor menghasilkan gas buang beracun seperti Hidrokarbon (HC)dan Sulfur Dioksida (S02).Pencemar HC dapat berasal dari proses alamiah (sumur-sumur minyak dan gas bumi) dan buatan manusia (asap kendaraan bermotor). Pencemar S02 secara alamiah berasal dari pembusukkan zat-zat organik, sedangkan buatan manusia adalah asap kendaraan bermotor juga. Jenis bahan bakar dibagi tiga kelompok, yaitu bensin, solar dan gas. Untuk menghitung konsentrasi HC dan S02 dapat dilakukan dengan 2 cara, yaitu perhitungan Gauss dan pengukuran lapangan dengan menggunakan alat.Dalam penelitian ini tidak dilakukan pengkajian skala laboratorium, akan tetapi dilakukan skala penuh lapangan. Alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur HC adalah Analizer Hidrokarbon, model alat GHC-75 M dengan menggunakan gas kromatografi. S02 menggunakan alat Analizer SOx model GFS-32 menggunakan etode Ultraviolet Fluorescence. Pengukuran dilakukan awal Oktober di delapan titik pen~ukuran dengan menggunakan mobil MULPU. Untuk menganalisa datanya digunakan metbde arialisa statistik. Hasil yang di dapat dari perhitungan Gauss dan Lapangan aka -t:libandi 'Qka -engan baku mutu PP No. 41 Tahun1999.Hasil tertinggi dalam pe gukuran lapangan rata-rata konsentrasi Hidrokarbon berada di T. Cicaheum (1751.26 µg/ 3), yang teren ali cti KPAD (46 ,36 µglm3). Kandungan S02 tertinggi di Diponegoro (90. 1 m3}, -yang tereR an di Cibiru (61.78 µg/m3). Setelahdikonversikan dengan rumus Counter umuk memti odingkan ~engan baku mutu, untuk HCpengukuran lapangan telah melewal1r ba.R mutu seaan ka perhitungan teoritis belum melewati baku mutu ( baku rnute tintuk""'~C 1- 1 SO•µ§ m3 selama 3 jam). 802 baik lapanganmaupun perhitungan belum melewati baku mutu (baku mutu 802 = 265 µg/m3 selama 24 jam).Hasil perhitungan lebih kecil dari pada lapangan, hal ini disebabkan oleh kepadatankendaraan yang besar, pergantian arah/kecepatan angin membawa polutan ke tempat pengukuran, faktor emisi kendaraan diasumsikan sama, klas kestabilan hanya memperhitungkan kecepatan angin dan radiasi matahari, dispersi angin akibat adanya bangunan dan kecepatan kendaraan sehingga angin tidak stabil, faktor di luar kendaraan seperti faktor lingkungan jalan tersebut. Dari hasil analisa statistik,untuk HC korelasi yang paling kuat ada cit Jt. M: Toha (0.994), paling lemah di Bundaran Cibiru (0.617). Dilihat nilai signifikan yang terbail< Eli Jl:-M. Taha (0.001), terlemah di Burtderan Cibiru (0.204). Untuk S02 korelasi yang paling -kuat .ada di JI. Elang Raya (0. 777), paling lemah di Bundaran Ciciru (0.507). Dilihat nilai signifikan yang terbaik di JI. Elang Raya (0.013), terlemah di JI. Diponegoro{0.396).Kesimpulan yang di dapat adalah perhitungan teoritis selalu lebih kecil dari pada lapangan, faktor jumlah kendaraan berpengaruh terhadap tingginya konsentrasi HC dan S02 dengan nilai signifikan yang berbeda, menurut PP No. 41 Tahun 1999 dari pengukuranlapangan HC telah melewati baku mutu, sedangkan 802 belum melewati baku mutu. Saran yang dapat diangkat adalah perlunya stasiun pemantau udara, pengecekan secara berkala bahan bakar yang digunakan dan perawatan yang baik pada -kendar-aan, adanya alat untuk mencegah/mengurangi polutan berbahaya keluar dari emisi, memasyarakatkan BBM ramah lingkungan, mengujiemisikan kendaraan secara berkala dan pembatasan kendaraan di wilayahtertentu pada waktu tertentu.

C Composition and concentration of air substances are determined by the substances that are being emitted from certain sources. Motor vehicle activity is the main element in causing air pollution. The incineration process in motor vehicles produced toxic exhaust such as Hydrocarbon (HC) and Sulfur Dioxide (S02).HC pollutant can be produced by a natural process (natural oil and gas wells) and humanactivity (motor vehicle exhaust}. The decaying process of organic substances can produce S02 pollutant naturally and also can be produced from human activity such as motor vehicle exhaust. There are three types of fuel, i.e. gasoline, diesel fuel and gas. There are two ways to calculate HC and S02 concentration, that is to use Gauss calculation and field measurement research.The scale that was being practiced in this field researched is a full field scale, not a laboratory scale. The device used in measuring HC is Hydrocarbon analyzer type GHC-75M using chromatograph gas. And SOx analyzer type GFS-32 is being used to measure S02 using Ultraviolet Fluorescence method. Measurements re conducted in early October 2001 at 8 measurements points by using the MULPU vehicle. tatistic analysis method was being used for data analysis and the overcome results from Gauss calculation and field research were being compared to the quality standard (PP No. 41 ahun 19 9',The highest result of Hydroca ban ve age in fi Id m asurements was located at T. Cicaheum (1751,26 µg/m3) and th I st wa locat at K D 467,36 µgtm3>. The highestresult of S02 was located at the Dipone oro (90, µ~ . 3) and t e lowest at Cibiru (61,78 µglm\After being converted to the Cou ter t ula an co 12ared t the 9uality standard, apparently the amount of HC that was bein~ m • the field ed the quality standard range(HC quality standard= 160 µg/m for 3 ho. s. tin• r tical calculation, the amount of HC didn't exceeded. In the other haACI th am u t of 2 ittl • om field measurement or theoretical calculation, was still in the quality standard range (S02 quality standard= 265 µg/m3 for24 hours).Why the theoretical measurements result was smaller than the field measurement result is because of the large amount vehicles, the changing wind direction and velocity that would bring pollutant to the measurement area, vehicles emission factor are being assumed similat, the stability class only calcutate wind velocity and sun radiation, buildings and vehicle speed produced wind dispersion -that- could cause the instability of the wind, and other environment factors that consist in the• measumment area. From statistic analysis, the strongest correlation for HC was located at M.Toha Street {0,994) and the weakest was at the Cibiru traffic circle (0,617). From the significant results, Jhe .best HC result was located at M. Toha Street (0,001) and the weakest was at Cibiru traffic circle (0,204). Andfor S02, the strongest correlation was located at Elang Raya Street ( 0, 777), the weakest was at Cibiru traffic circle (0,507}. From the significant result, the best S02 result was located at Elang Raya Street (0,013) and the weakest was at Diponegoro Street (0,396).The overall conclusions are that the theoretical calculation results are always smaller than the field measurement results, the amount of motor vehicles is effecting the concentration ofHC and S02 with different significant value. According to PP. No. 41 Tahun 1999, based on the field measurement, the amount of HC has exceed the quality standard but the amount of S02 is still in the quality standard range. Crucial suggestions to be noted, the need of Air Monitoring Station, fuel check and motor vehicle treatment, the need of toxic emission pollutant reducer devices, market an environmental friendly motor fuel, conducted an emission test for vehicles, and vehicles restriction in certain areas at certain times.

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